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Swedres-Svarm reports

Swedres-Svarm is a report on Swedish Antibiotic Sales and Resistance in Human Medicine (Swedres) and Swedish Veterinary Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring (Svarm). It is published yearly by the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Veterinary Agency.

For a long time, Sweden has had a favourable situation compared to many other countries when it comes to antibiotic resistance in bacteria from humans, which remains true. One contributing factor is that we have effective strategies to promote the responsible use of antibiotics and limit the spread of antibiotic resistance. Despite the favourable situation, there are problems with continuously increasing antibiotic resistance and the spread of infections in healthcare. Important examples are the recurrent outbreaks of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in hospitals and an increasing number of healthcare-associated clusters of ESBLCARBA. This emphasises the importance of continuous work with antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control, in healthcare as well as in the community to prevent increasing antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotic sales in human medicine in Sweden decreased sharply during the pandemic, but began to increase in 2022 and continued to increase in 2023. Despite the increase, sales remained below pre-pandemic levels. Antibiotic sales have generally decreased since the peak in 1992. The greatest decrease during this period was observed in children aged 0-4 years.

In veterinary medicine, sales of antibiotics have decreased markedly since the mid-1980s, and in recent years sales seem to have stabilised at a comparatively low level. The occurrence of resistance among bacteria from animals has generally been stable at low or moderate levels. For some substances and in some bacteria the occurrence of resistance is even declining. One example of this is a significant decline of the occurrence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli among broilers. There are however exceptions, and for example resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim has increased in indicator E. coli from both broilers and pigs.


Previous reports in pdf format


Swedres-Svarm 2022 2023  
Swedres-Svarm 2021 2022  
Swedres-Svarm 2020 2021  
Swedres-Svarm 2019 2020  
Swedres-Svarm 2018* 2019  
Swedres-Svarm 2017 2018  
Swedres-Svarm 2016 2017  
Swedres-Svarm 2015 2016  
Swedres-Svarm 2014 2015  
Swedres-Svarm 2013 2014  
Swedres-Svarm 2012 2013  
Swedres-Svarm 2011 2012  
Swedres-Svarm 2010 2011  
Swedres-Svarm 2009 2010  
Swedres-Svarm 2008 2009  
Swedres-Svarm 2007 2008  
Swedres-Svarm 2006 2007  
Swedres-Svarm 2005 2006  
Swedres-Svarm 2004 2005  
Swedres-Svarm 2003 2004  
Swedres-Svarm 2002 2003  
Swedres-Svarm 2001 2002  
Swedres-Svarm 2000 2001  

*One figure (3.31) in the printed report Swedres-Svarm 2018 is incorrect. The figure has been corrected in the PDF file that is accessible online.

Last updated : 2024-06-26