EU Zoonoses report
The report covers the zoonotic agents that are included in Directive 2003/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents, amending Council Decision 90/424/EEC and repealing Council Directive 92/117/EEC, including salmonella. It includes prevalence in feed, animals, food and in humans. Based on the national reports Efsa compiles data and produces an all EU report, “The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks”, and includes some non-EU countries that submit data as well.
In addition to the EU report, a Swedish report in English is produced, “Surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and humans in Sweden”. It is published on a yearly basis presenting results from surveillance- and control programs for some notifiable diseases in domesticated and wild animals including zoonoses and illustrates the current situation in Sweden, history and trends and highlights specific events.
Baseline surveys in Europe
In order to get comparable data from the Member States on the presence of salmonella in various animal species, several baseline surveys have been carried out in the EU and Norway. The results are used as a basis for harmonized control programs and to define common standards for levels of salmonella presence in the EU. The reports of the baseline surveys have been published by the European Food Safety Authority (Efsa).
During 2004–2005, a baseline survey of salmonella in laying hens was conducted. Salmonella could not be detected in any of the 168 sampled Swedish flocks, while the average prevalence within the EU was 30.8 %. The presence of salmonella varied widely between the member countries, from 0 % in Sweden, Norway, and Luxemburg, 0.4 % in Finland and 2.7 % in Denmark to 79.5 % in Portugal.
In broiler flocks, a corresponding baseline survey was performed in 2005–2006. Also in this study the Swedish result was encouraging with no salmonella detected in any of the 291 sampled broiler flocks, while the average prevalence within the EU was 23.7 %. Again, the situation varied between the countries from 0% in Sweden, Finland, and Norway, 1.6 % in Denmark and Slovenia to 68.2 % in Hungary.
In turkey flocks, a baseline survey was made in 2006–2007. Since Sweden has only a small production of turkey meat, only a few samples were taken. Salmonella was not found in any of the 14 sampled slaughter turkey flocks or from the only sampled breeding turkey flock. The EU average was 30.7 % in turkeys for slaughter and 13.6 % in turkeys for breeding. The prevalence in turkeys for slaughter varied between different EU-countries from 0% (Sweden, Finland, Norway, Bulgaria), 4 % in Denmark to 78.5 % in Hungary. The turkey breeding flocks are very concentrated geographically; half of the flocks are in France and most European countries have very few breeding flocks.
The baseline survey for salmonella in pigs for fattening was also performed during 2006–2007. In this study, samples were taken from intestinal lymph nodes in pigs for fattening and in 13 countries swab samples were taken from the carcasses of the same animals. Salmonella in lymph nodes reflects if the animal is carrying the infection, while the swab samples also reflect the slaughter hygiene. The average prevalence of salmonella in lymph node samples in pigs for fattening within the EU was 10.3 % while the average for positive swab samples from pigs for fattening was 8.3 %. The percentage of positive lymph node samples ranged from 0% in Finland, 0.3 % in Norway, 1.3 % in Sweden to 29 % in Spain. The corresponding numbers for swab samples of carcasses was 0 % (Sweden, Slovenia) to 20 % in Ireland.
The baseline survey for salmonella in breeding pigs took place in 2008 in 24 EU-countries and in Norway and Switzerland. This study included breeding herds and gilt producers as well as herds with production of piglets for fattening. More than 5000 breeding herds were sampled. One third of the breeding herds within the EU were contaminated with salmonella (31.8 %). The salmonella presence in fattening herds was 33.3 % (0–55.7 %) and in breeding herds 28.7 % (0–64.7 %). The serotypes Derby and Typhimurium were the most common. In Sweden, salmonella was detected in only one of 207 sampled herds (0.5 %). Norway and Finland was completely free from findings of salmonella while in Denmark the bacteria was found in 40 % of the herds. The study confirmed the favourable salmonella situation in the Nordic countries Finland, Norway, and Sweden.
The baseline survey for campylobacter and salmonella in broiler flocks took place in 2008. The study included over 10,000 broiler flocks from 561 slaughter houses in 26 EU-countries and Norway and Switzerland. Salmonella was detected in 15,7 % of the broiler carcasses in EU and in 0,3 % (1 of 410) of the broiler carcasses in Sweden. The presence of salmonella in broiler carcasses ranged between 0 % to 26,6 % except for one country where 85,6 % of the broiler carcasses were contaminated with salmonella. S. Infantis and S. Enteritidis were the two most common serotypes found. The Swedish isolate was a S. Agona.
The conducted baseline surveys shows that Sweden, as well as Finland and Norway, have a favourable salmonella situation compared to other European countries. A long-term effort to prevent salmonella infections has contributed to that.
The board of agriculture´s review of the salmonella control program
In 2006–2007 the Board of Agriculture made a review of the salmonella control program in Sweden. The purpose was to find cost efficiencies in the current control program without impairing the disease control, i.e. to produce equally safe Swedish food but at a lower cost. Based on the outcome of the review and other experiences, the Board of Agriculture has proposed changes in the salmonella control program. This report is only available in Swedish.
Report on salmonella in feed
After two major salmonella outbreaks that were traced to feed production in 2003 and 2006, the Board of Agriculture appointed an independent investigator to review the causes and effects and suggest possible steps in his inquiry. This report is only available in Swedish.
Svarm-reports from SVA
SVA has the assignment to monitor and analyse the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals and in bacteria from food of animal origin. This is carried out in the Swedish Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (Svarm) which has been running since 2000. Results of Svarm, i.e. data on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals and data on sales of antimicrobials for use in animals, are published in a yearly report.